Main Principles of physics. For Scientists and Engineers

Principles of physics. For Scientists and Engineers

,
Very didactical textbook
Presents the mathematical basics for each topic
Contains many exercises and solutions for teaching and learning

This textbook presents a basic course in physics to teach mechanics, mechanical properties of matter, thermal properties of matter, elementary thermodynamics, electrodynamics, electricity, magnetism, light and optics and sound. It includes simple mathematical approaches to each physical principle, and all examples and exercises are selected carefully to reinforce each chapter. In addition, answers to all exercises are included that should ultimately help solidify the concepts in the minds of the students and increase their confidence in the subject. Many boxed features are used to separate the examples from the text and to highlight some important physical outcomes and rules. The appendices are chosen in such a way that all basic simple conversion factors, basic rules and formulas, basic rules of differentiation and integration can be viewed quickly, helping student to understand the elementary mathematical steps used for solving the examples and exercises.

Instructors teaching form this textbook will be able to gain online access to the solutions manual which provides step-by-step solutions to all exercises contained in the book. The solutions manual also contains many tips, colored illustrations, and explanations on how the solutions were derived.

Content Level » Lower undergraduate

Keywords » electricity - fluid- and aerodynamics - light waves - magnetism - mechanical properties of matter - mechanics - optics - oscillations and waves - physics, general - sound - sound waves - thermal properties of matter - thermodynamics

Related subjects » Classical Continuum Physics - Electronics & Electrical Engineering - Materials - Mechanical Engineering - Optics & Lasers

Cover

Undergraduate Lecture Notes in Physics

Principles of Physics For Scientists and Engineers

Copyright

Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

ISSN 2192-4791

ISSN 2192-4805 (electronic)

ISBN 978-3-642-23025-7

ISBN 978-3-642-23026-4 (eBook)

DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-23026-4

Preface

Acknowledgments from Prof. Hafez A. Radi

Acknowledgments from Prof. John O. Rasmussen

Contents

Preface

Fundamental Physical Constants

Other useful constants

The greek alphabet

Some SI base units and derived units

SI multipliers

Part I Fundamental Basics

1 Dimensions and Units

1.1 The International System of Units 3

1.2 Standards of Length, Time, and Mass 5

1.3 Dimensional Analysis 9

1.4 Exercises 12

2 Vectors

2.1 Vectors and Scalars 17

2.2 Properties of Vectors. 19

2.3 Vector Components and Unit Vectors 22

2.4 Multiplying Vectors 27

2.5 Exercises 33

Part II Mechanics

3 Motion in One Dimension

3.1 Position and Displacement 41

3.2 Average Velocity and Average Speed 42

3.3 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed 44

3.4 Acceleration 48

3.5 Constant Acceleration 52

3.6 Free Fall 57

3.7 Exercises 62

4 Motion in Two Dimensions

4.1 Position, Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration Vectors 71

4.2 Projectile Motion 79

4.3 Uniform Circular Motion 87

4.4 Tangential and Radial Acceleration. 90

4.5 Non-uniform Circular Motion. 91

4.6 Exercises 93

5 Force and Motion

5.1 The Cause of Acceleration and Newton’s Laws 103

5.2 Some Particular Forces 106

5.3 Applications to Newton’s Laws 113

5.4 Exercises 124

6 Work, Energy, and Power

6.1 Work Done by a Constant Force 137

6.2 Work Done by a Variable Force. 142

6.3 Work-Energy Theorem 148

6.4 Conservative Forces and Potential Energy 151

6.5 Conservation of Mechanical Energy 157

6.6 Work Done by Non-conservative Forces 159

6.7 Conservation of Energy 162

6.8 Power 166

6.9 Exercises 170

7 Linear Momentum, Collisions, and Center of Mass

7.1 Linear Momentum and Impulse 181

7.2 Conservation of Linear Momentum. 184

7.3 Conservation of Momentum and Energy in Collisions 187

7.4 Center of Mass (CM) 195

7.5 Dynamics of the Center of Mass 199

7.6 Systems of Variable Mass 203

7.7 Exercises 209

8 Rotational Motion

8.1 Radian Measures 227

8.2 Rotational Kinematics; Angular Quantities 228

8.3 Constant Angular Acceleration 232

8.4 Angular Vectors 233

8.5 Relating Angular and Linear Quantities 233

8.6 Rotational Dynamics; Torque 238

8.7 Newton’s Second Law for Rotation 240

8.8 Kinetic Energy, Work, and Power in Rotation 248

8.9 Rolling Motion 252

8.10 Exercises 259

9 Angular Momentum

9.1 Angular Momentum of Rotating Systems 269

9.2 Conservation of Angular Momentum 277

9.3 The Spinning Top and Gyroscope 285

9.4 Exercises 289

10 Mechanical Properties of Matter.

10.1 Density and Relative Density 304

10.2 Elastic Properties of Solids 306

10.3 Fluids 314

10.4 Fluid Statics 316

10.5 Fluid Dynamics 328

10.6 Exercises 345

Part III Introductory Thermodynamics

11 Thermal Properties of Matter.

11.1 Temperature 357

11.2 Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids 360

11.3 The Ideal Gas 365

11.4 Exercises 371

12 Heat and the First Law of Thermodynamics

12.1 Heat and Thermal Energy 379

12.2 Heat and Work. 390

12.3 The First Law of Thermodynamics 395

12.4 Applications of the First Law of Thermodynamics 396

12.5 Heat Transfer 406

12.6 Exercises 416

13 Kinetic Theory of Gases

13.1 Microscopic Model of an Ideal Gas 427

13.2 Molar Specific Heat Capacity of an Ideal Gas 434

13.3 Distribution of Molecular Speeds 441

13.4 Non-ideal Gases and Phases of Matter 442

13.5 Exercises 444

Part IV Sound and Light Waves

14 Oscillations and Wave Motion

14.1 Simple Harmonic Motion 451

14.2 Damped Simple Harmonic Motion 462

14.3 Sinusoidal Waves 463

14.4 The Speed of Waves on Strings 470

14.5 Energy Transfer by Sinusoidal Waves on Strings 472

14.6 The Linear Wave Equation 476

14.7 Standing Waves 477

14.8 Exercises 486

15 Sound Waves

15.1 Speed of Sound Waves 499

15.2 Periodic Sound Waves 502

15.3 Energy, Power, and Intensity of Sound Waves 505

15.4 The Decibel Scale 510

15.5 Hearing Response to Intensity and Frequency 514

15.6 The Doppler Effect 514

15.7 Supersonic Speeds and Shock Waves 521

15.8 Exercises 523

16 Superposition of Sound Waves

16.1 Superposition and Interference 531

16.2 Spatial Interference of Sound Waves 533

16.3 Standing Sound Waves 537

16.4 Standing Sound Waves in Air Columns 541

16.5 Temporal Interference of Sound Waves: Beats 549

16.6 Exercises 554

17 Light Waves and Optics

17.1 Light Rays 561

17.2 Reflection and Refraction of Light 563

17.3 Total Internal Reflection and Optical Fibers. 568

17.4 Chromatic Dispersion and Prisms 571

17.5 Formation of Images by Reflection 575

17.6 Formation of Images by Refraction. 583

17.7 Exercises 595

18 Interference, Diffraction and Polarization of Light

18.1 Interference of Light Waves 603

18.2 Young’s Double Slit Experiment 604

18.3 Thin Films-Change of Phase Due to Reflection 611

18.4 Diffraction of Light Waves 615

18.5 Diffraction Gratings 620

18.6 Polarization of Light Waves 624

18.7 Exercises 627

Part V Electricity

19 Electric Force

19.1 Electric Charge. 637

19.2 Charging Conductors and Insulators 639

19.3 Coulomb’s Law 642

19.4 Exercises 651

20 Electric Fields

20.1 The Electric Field 659

20.2 The Electric Field of a Point Charge 660

20.3 The Electric Field of an Electric Dipole 666

20.4 Electric Field of a Continuous Charge Distribution 670

20.5 Electric Field Lines 684

20.6 Motion of Charged Particles in a Uniform Electric Field 686

20.7 Exercises 691

21 Gauss’s Law

21.1 Electric Flux 701

21.2 Gauss’s Law 705

21.3 Applications of Gauss’s Law 707

21.4 Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium 717

21.5 Exercises 720

22 Electric Potential

22.1 Electric Potential Energy 731

22.2 Electric Potential 733

22.3 Electric Potential in a Uniform Electric Field 735

22.4 Electric Potential Due to a Point Charge 741

22.5 Electric Potential Due to a Dipole 745

22.6 Electric Dipole in an External Electric Field 747

22.7 Electric Potential Due to a Charged Rod 749

22.8 Electric Potential Due to a Uniformly Charged Arc 752

22.9 Electric Potential Due to a Uniformly Charged Ring. 753

22.10 Electric Potential Due to a Uniformly Charged Disk. 754

22.11 Electric Potential Due to a Uniformly Charged Sphere 756

22.12 Electric Potential Due to a Charged Conductor 757

22.13 Potential Gradient 758

22.14 The Electrostatic Precipitator 761

22.15 The Van de Graaff Generator. 762

22.16 Exercises 763

23 Capacitors and Capacitance

23.1 Capacitor and Capacitance 773

23.2 Calculating Capacitance. 775

23.3 Capacitors with Dielectrics 781

23.4 Capacitors in Parallel and Series. 790

23.5 Energy Stored in a Charged Capacitor. 795

23.6 Exercises 797

24 Electric Circuits

24.1 Electric Current and Electric Current Density 809

24.2 Ohm’s Law and Electric Resistance 814

24.3 Electric Power 823

24.4 Electromotive Force 825

24.5 Resistors in Series and Parallel 829

24.6 Kirchhoff’s Rules 834

24.7 The RC Circuit 838

24.8 Exercises 844

Part VI Magnetism

25 Magnetic Fields

25.1 Magnetic Force on a Moving Charge 859

25.2 Motion of a Charged Particle in a Uniform Magnetic Field 863

25.3 Charged Particles in an Electric and Magnetic Fields 865

25.4 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor. 869

25.5 Torque on a Current Loop 874

25.6 Non-Uniform Magnetic Fields 878

25.7 Exercises 879

26 Sources of Magnetic Field

26.1 The Biot-Savart Law. 889

26.2 The Magnetic Force Between Two Parallel Currents. 895

26.3 Ampere’s Law 897

26.4 Displacement Current and the Ampere-Maxwell Law 901

26.5 Gauss’s Law for Magnetism 903

26.6 The Origin of Magnetism 904

26.7 Magnetic Materials 908

26.8 Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism 910

26.9 Ferromagnetism 914

26.10 Some Applications of Magnetism 919

26.11 Exercises 921

27 Faraday’s Law, Alternating Current, and Maxwell’s Equations

27.1 Faraday’s Law of Induction 933

27.2 Motional emf 936

27.3 Electric Generators 940

27.4 Alternating Current 942

27.5 Transformers 943

27.6 Induced Electric Fields 945

27.7 Maxwell’s Equations of Electromagnetism 947

27.8 Exercises 950

28 Inductance, Oscillating Circuits, and AC Circuits

28.1 Self-Inductance. 961

28.2 Mutual Inductance 964

28.3 Energy Stored in an Inductor 966

28.4 The L-R Circuit 967

28.5 The Oscillating L-C Circuit 971

28.6 The L-R-C Circuit 974

28.7 Circuits with an ac Source 977

28.8 L-R-C Series in an ac Circuit 984

28.9 Resonance in L-R-C Series Circuit 988

28.10 Exercises 988

Appendix A Conversion Factors 999

Appendix B Basic Rules and Formulas 1003

Appendix C The Periodic Table of Elements 1013

Answers to All Exercises

Index
Year:
2013
Publisher:
Springer
Language:
english
Pages:
1039
ISBN 13:
978-3-642-23025-7
File:
PDF, 59.46 MB
Download (pdf, 59.46 MB)

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